Qurbani & Eid-al Adha : Virtues And Rulings
By SMIC, Aug 16 2017 05:51AM
Virtues of Qurbāni
•Qurbāni is a practice commanded by Allah:
So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals). (108:2)
• There is nothing dearer to Allah during the days of Qurbāni than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Judgement with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allah before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with an open and happy heart. (Tirmizi, Ibne Mājah)
• Zayd Ibne Arqam radiyallahu anhu relates that the Companionsradiyallahu anhum asked, “O Rasoolullah! What is Qurbāni?” He replied, “It is the sunnah of your father Ibraaheem alayhis salaam.” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (what reward is there for animals with) wool, O Rasoolullah?” they asked. “A reward”, he said, “for every fibre of the wool.” (Ibne Mājah)
• When a person slaughters a Qurbāni animal, he is forgiven at the fall of the first drop of blood, and verily, the animal shall be brought forward on the Day Of Judgement with its blood, meat etc., and shall be increased in weight seventy times more than its own weight, and thereafter it will be placed on the scale of deeds. (Kanzul ‘Ummāl)
On whom is Qurbāni Waajib?
• Qurbāni is waajib on every Muslim who is of sound mind, mature (who has reached the age of puberty), muqeem (i.e. he is not a Shar‘ee traveller) and possesses the amount of fifty two and half tolas of silver (612.36 grammes) or wealth equivalent to that value which is in excess of one’s aslee (basic) needs. It is not necessary that this amount be in one’s possession for a complete lunar year. Its possession during the three days of Qurbāni will make Qurbāni obligatory. Qurbāni is not incumbent on a child or an insane person whether they own wealth equivalent to the amount above or not, nor is it waajib upon their guardians to perform it on their behalf. Similarly, it is not waajib on a Shar‘ee traveller.
Note: A Shar‘ee traveller is he who goes on a journey with an intention of travelling forty eight miles. He will be treated as a traveller as soon as he goes out of his town.
• It is highly virtuous for one on whom Qurbāni is not waajib to offer sacrifice for the Pleasure of Allah. He will be eligible for all the reward mentioned in the Ahaadeeth.
• During the days of Qurbāni, sadaqah and charity cannot compensate for Qurbāni nor fulfil the waajib. Qurbāni is a unique ibaadah. Just as Zakaah cannot compensate for Hajj, or Sawm (Fasting) cannot compensate for Salaat, similarly charity cannot compensate for Qurbāni. However, if the days of Qurbāni had passed, and the Qurbāni was not offered due to not knowing, negligence or for some other valid reason, then it becomes waajib to give in sadaqah the price of Qurbāni animal or the animal itself to the poor.
• If a traveller returned home or a person acquired the required wealth on the 12th of Zul Hijjah before sunset, it will be waajib upon him to perform Qurbāni.
• A traveller who makes intention of staying at a certain place for fifteen days or more, no longer remains a traveller. He must offer Qurbāni if he possesses the prescribed amount.
Days of Qurbāni
• The days of Qurbāni are the tenth, eleventh and twelfth of Zul Hijjah. The first day is better than the second, and the second better than the last.
Time for Qurbāni
• In towns and cities where Jumu‘ah and ‘Eid are performed, Qurbāni is not permissible before the ‘Eid Salaat. If the Qurbāni has been offered before the ‘Eid Salaat, it will have to be repeated. Therefore, the time for Qurbāni commences after ‘Eid Salaat on 10th Zul Hijjah until before sunset of 12th Zul Hijjah.
• It is permissible, but not preferable to perform Qurbāni at night.
The Qurbāni animal
• It is permissible to offer in sacrifice a goat or she-goat, sheep of all kinds, cow, bull, buffalo or camel.
• It is necessary that the goat is one (full) year old, whether male or female. A cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years. Animals that are younger are not suitable for Qurbāni.
• A sheep (of any kind) not less than six months old, so strong and fat that it appears to be one year old will suffice for Qurbāni, otherwise it will have to be one (full) year old.
• A cow, bull, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons provided no one’s share is less than one seventh and the niyyah (intention) of all partners is to attain thawaab (for Qurbāni), and not merely to obtain meat.
• The Qurbāni of only one person can be performed from a goat, sheep or ram.
• If an animal seller says that the animal has reached the required age, and outwardly there is no sign to disprove it, then it is permissible to rely on his statement.
• Animals that are castrated can be used for Qurbāni. In fact this type of animal is preferable.
• The following cannot be used for Qurbāni:
- Animals that are blind, one-eyed or has lost one-third or more of its eyesight.
- Animals that have lost a third of the ear or the tail. Similarly, the animal which has no ear from its very birth.
- Animal whose horn has been broken off from the root.
- Animal which has one leg lame to the extent that it walks on three legs only and is unable to use the fourth leg.
- Animal so weak that it cannot walk to the place of slaughtering on its own.
- Animal completely toothless or one that has lost most of its teeth.
Masnoon method of sacrifice
• It is more virtuous to slaughter the animal with one’s own hands. If one does not know how to slaughter, it is preferred that he remain present while someone else is sacrificing the animal. It is necessary to say Bismillahi Allahu Akbar when slaughtering.
• Use a sharp knife and slaughter the animal quickly so that it does not suffer.
• Do not sharpen the knife in front of the animal
• After slaughtering, do not skin the animal before it becomes completely cold.
• Do not slaughter one animal in the presence of another.
• It is mustahab (desirable) for one who intends to perform Qurbāni to refrain from cutting hair or clipping nails from 1st Zul Hijjah to 10th Zul Hijjah, (i.e. until after Qurbāni).
The Qurbāni meat
• It is permissible to eat the Qurbāni meat. It can also be distributed to relatives and friends whether wealthy or poor, Muslims or non-Muslims. It is better to divide it into three parts. One for the family, one for relatives and friends and one for the poor and needy.
Qurbāni on behalf of the deceased
If one has been favoured by Allah with wealth, then he should also perform Qurbāni on behalf of Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam, his Sahaabah, his Ummah, the Prophets and for his own living or deceased relatives, friends and teachers who have conveyed Deeni knowledge.
Aboo Talhah radiyallahu anhu has related that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam sacrificed one ram and while sacrificing the other he said, “This is on behalf of every one of my Ummah who believed in me and testified (to my prophethood).” (Tabraani)
It is a matter for deep thought and consideration that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam kept his Ummah in his mind while offering the sacrifice and it is deplorable for the Ummah not to remember him at the time of Qurbāni.
Moreover, Hanash (Allah be pleased with him) relates that, “I saw Ali (Allah be pleased with him) sacrificing two rams.” I asked him, “What is this?” He replied, “Verily the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) advised me to sacrifice on his behalf [after his passing], hence I am sacrificing on his behalf.” (Sunan Abu Dawud 2783, Sunan Tirmidhi 1495 and Musnad Ahmad)
It is Waajib for every adult Muslim to recite the Takbeeraat-e-Tashreeq audibly after every fardh Salaat from the Fajr of 9th Zil Hijjah to the Asr of 13th Zil Hijjah (total of 23 fardh Salaat).
It is waajib upon men to recite this takbeer once after every fardh Salaat audibly. The women should not recite it loudly but silently.
Takbeer Tashreeq is:
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Laa ilaaha illallahu Wallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Wa lillahil Hamd.
Sunnah Of Eid-al Adha
To adorn oneself according to the Shariah, by:
a. Performing ghusl (this is a confirmed sunnah for the Eid prayer);
b. Brush one’s teeth, using a miswak if possible;
c. Apply perfume;
d. Wear the best clothing one possesses, without excess. White, when available, is optimal;
2. To wake up early, in order to prepare for the sunnas of the day;
3. To go early to the place the Eid prayer is taking place.
4. To delay eating until after the Eid al-Adha prayer.
5. To return from the Eid prayer by a different route to the one taken there, as established by the Prophet’s practice (Allah bless him & give him peace);
6. To recite the Takbirs of Eid.